Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences 2023-07-01T20:25:45+00:00 Prof. Dr. Khaled Saeed Alsweedi [email protected] Open Journal Systems Front Cover 2023-06-30T20:12:44+00:00 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren [email protected] 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren OPTICAL AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF EPOXY RESIN FILLED WITH TITANIUM DIOXIDE PARTICLES 2023-07-01T20:25:31+00:00 Mokhtar S. S. Al-Salimi [email protected] Wesam R. N. Ali [email protected] Khaled M. Habeb [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">This work studies the electrical properties for pure epoxy, and epoxy with (0, 1, 1.5, 2 wt%) titanium dioxide powder composites. The effects of titanium dioxide contents on optical and dielectrically properties of the epoxy/ titanium dioxide have investigated by several techniques were used to characterize the epoxy/titanium dioxide: UV-visible spectrophotometer reveals a new absorption band in the wavelength range (350-600) nm. The findings of this investigation show that when the proportion of titanium dioxide added increases, the absorbance increases which are ascribed to interchain interaction. The absorption coefficient (<em>α</em>), extinction coefficient (k), refractive index (n), the real and imaginary permittivity (<em>ε<sub>r</sub></em>, <em>ε<sub>i</sub></em>), and energy gap (E<sub>g</sub>) of epoxy/titanium dioxide samples were effectively determined from the recorded data optical transmission technique. In addition, these epoxy have been examined in the wavenumber range (4000-500 cm<sup>-1</sup>) using an FT-IR spectrometer and also a dielectric constant measurement. The thickness of all the samples is 1.2 mm ± 0.1 mm.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mokhtar S. S. Al-Salimi, Wesam R. N. Ali and Khaled M. Habeb NEW METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN PURE FORM AND FARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BASED ON SPECTROPHOTOMETRY 2023-07-01T20:25:45+00:00 Mohamed Ahmed Saleh Al-Lahji [email protected] Yousry Mostafa Issa [email protected] Hussien Mohamed Abddel-fattah [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">The proposed methods are simple, rapid, and accurate, used for the determination of Ambroxol Hydrochloride (AMB.HCl). There were two methods, the First method included chromotrope 2R, chromotrope 2B, arsenazo I, ASPANDS, and chromotrope 2C for the determination of AMB.HCl in its pure and pharmaceutical forms. The first method is based on the drug oxidation with Potassium permanganate in excess. The unreacted potassium permanganate was determined by measuring the absorbance of colored chromotropic acid azo dyes namely chromotrope 2R, chromotrope 2B, arsenazo I, SPADNS, and chromotrope 2C. The suitable ƛmax were 500, 510, 500, 510, and 520 nm, respectively. Under optimized conditions, Beer’s Law showed good correlation and obeyed in the concentration range 1.51-7.46, 0.82-4.97, 1.65-6.63, 0.82-6.63, and 1.73-8.29 µg mL-1 for chromotrope 2R, chromotrope 2B, arsenazo I , SPADNS, and chromotrope 2C. The apparent molar absorptivity, Sandell sensitivity, LOD, and LOQ were calculated. Pure and pharmaceutical forms containing AMB.HCl were analyzed and tested for the validity of the proposed methods. The Second method spectrophotometric titration is based on the determination of unreacted potassium permanganate using spectrophotometric titration against ferrous ammonium sulfate, where the end-point was detected spectrophotometrically using ferrion indicator at 510 nm, the Relative standard deviation where 0.23-2.04 with average recovery 100.35-103%.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Mohamed Ahmed Saleh, Yousry Mostafa Issa and Hussien Mohamed Abddel-fattah QUALITY EVALUATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN PREPARATIONS AVAILABLE IN PHARMACIES IN ADEN GOVERNORATE - YEMEN 2023-07-01T20:25:42+00:00 Ahmed Thabet Ahmed Al-Sarhe [email protected] Mutea’a Edrous Saeed [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">Human serum albumin(HAS) is important for the body, as it performs a set of functions such as maintaining osmotic pressure inside cells, transporting drugs and ions, and others. The fraudulent process of such preparations may lead to the deterioration of the patient's health condition and sometimes death. In the current study, two types of albumin preparations that were not authorized by the Yemeni ministry of health and entered the country through smuggling were studied. The results of the study proved that these preparations were exposed to high temperatures, so that denaturation of HSA, in addition to the oxidation process of the substance N-acetyl-tryptophan. The reverse phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to assess HSA, a gradient elution (a combination of acetonitrile/water, supplemented with 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid) was used to separate samples on a C4 (n-butyl-coated silica) column. Two main peaks were observed at 4.970 and 10.850 min, representing the stabilizer N-acetyl-tryptophan (N-Ac-Trp) and HSA respectively. Validation of the method demonstrated that HSA can be determined in an accurate and precise manner, in a range between 0.1 and 5g/ml, without the interference of matrix ingredients. The limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) values were 0.23 and 0.72 g /ml, respectively. The results of the study proved that these preparations do not meet the quality specifications of the World Health Organization, in addition to exposure to temperatures and bad storage leading to oxidation. The results of the analysis of all samples were less than the permissible limit because each sample must contain 10 grams per 50 ml.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmed Thabet Ahmed Al-Sarhe and Mutea’a Edrous Saeed EFFECT OF ADDING TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) POWDER TO BROILER DIET ON THE PERFORMANCE AND SOME OF CARCASS TRAITS 2023-07-01T20:25:38+00:00 Salem Nasser Hussein [email protected] Abdel-Wahed Awad Ahmed [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">This experiment was conducted at the poultry farm in Nasser faculty of Agricultural sciences, University of Aden, during the period from 3/2/2021 to 2/3/2021. To study the effect of inclusion two levels of turmeric (<em>Curcuma</em> <em>longa</em>) powder on broiler performance and some of carcass parameters. 90 Ross broiler chicks were allocated randomly to three dietary treatments from 7 – 35days of age with three replicate (10 bird \ pen). The experimental diets were as follow: (T<sub>1</sub>) standard diet without any supplementation (control), (T<sub>2</sub>) standard diet supplemented with 0.25% turmeric powder, and (T<sub>3</sub>) standard diet supplemented with 0.5% turmeric powder. Result showed that final body weight, total weight gain and feed conversion were significantly increased (p &lt; 0.05) for the second (T<sub>2</sub>) and third (T<sub>3</sub>) treatment compared with the first treatment (T<sub>1</sub>), so there were significant improvement (P&lt;0.05) in final body weight and total weight gain for third treatment (T<sub>3</sub>) compared with second treatment (T<sub>2</sub>), as well as the results showed a significant decrease (P&lt;0.05) in the dressing percentage for the second treatment when compared with the first and third treatment. While There were no significant differences among treatments as feed consumption and relative weights of chest, thigh and eatable internal organs (Gizzard, Liver and heart). From this study it could be concluded that supplementing broiler diets with 0.25% or 0.5 % curcuma powder improved significantly broiler performance and could be used as growth promoter.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Salem Nasser Hussein and Abdel-Wahed Awad Ahmed A COMPARATIVE QUALITY STUDY OF SELECTED AUTHORIZED AND SMUGGLED MEDICINES IN ADEN, YEMEN 2023-07-01T20:25:35+00:00 Eman Abdo Ali [email protected] Olfat Saleh Ahmed [email protected] Hala Shokri [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">In Yemen, most of the medicines are imported. Drugs that enter the country by legal means undergo some tests by Supreme Board for Drugs and Medical Appliances (SBDMA) to evaluate the quality of the product. However, some medicines enter the country illegally (smuggling) and this makes them bypass the evaluation of their quality by the SBDMA. This work was carried out to determine the physical quality control parameters of authorized and smuggled drug products marketed in Aden pharmacies. The authorized and smuggled brands of cefuroxime (CEF), atorvastatin (ATR), and carvedilol (CAR) tablets available in Aden pharmacies were selected. The tablets were evaluated for their physical properties and quality control parameters including weight variation, hardness, friability, and disintegration test. The level of drug content also was evaluated using UV spectroscopy. The physical assessment showed that the authorized and smuggled brands of the same products were uniform in shape, color, packing, and labeling information except for the registration number and manufacture date which were present only on the authorized brands. The three authorized and smuggled brands of CEF, ATR, and CAR complied with the official specifications for weight version, diameter, thickness and hardness, friability, and disintegration tests except for the hardness value of ATR. All authorized brands agreed with the label claims whereas some smuggled brands contained the appropriate active ingredients but did not contain the right amounts.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Eman Abdo Ali, Olfat Saleh Ahmed and Hala Shokri PARASITIC CONTAMINATION OF VEGETABLES IN SELECTED LOCAL MARKETS IN ADEN GOVERNORATE, YEMEN 2023-07-01T20:25:26+00:00 Adelh Mohammed Qaid Muqbel [email protected] Adel Jumaan Awadh Binsaad [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">Fresh and raw vegetables may play a significant role in transmission of intestinal parasitic infections to humans. Therefore, this study was conducted to estimate the level of parasitic contamination in vegetables which are consumed raw in Aden governorate, Yemen. This is a descriptive analytic cross-sectional study in which six local markets were randomly selected. A total of 216 fresh vegetable samples including parsley<em> (Petroselinum sativum</em>), watercress <em>(Nasturtium officinale)</em>, lettuce (<em>Lactuca</em> <em>sativa</em>), leek <em>(Allium porrum</em>), green onion (<em>Allium cepa</em>), and tomatoes<em> (Solanum Lycopersicum</em>) were purchased from the selected markets and analysed using direct and iodine wet mount smear preparation. Modified Ziehl–Neelsen staining and Zinc sulphate flotation method were also used. Smears were examined by under the light microscope. Out of 216 vegetable samples, 166 (76.9%) were contaminated with one or more parasites. Parsley was the most contaminated (97.2%), followed by watercress (94.4%), lettuce (88.9%), leek (80.6%), green onion (77.8%), whereas the least contamination rate was in tomato (22.2%). Statistically significant difference in parasitic contamination rate was found between different types of vegetables (P &lt; 0.05). The most common parasite was <em>Ascaris lumbricoides </em>75 (24.4%), followed by cyst of<em> Entamoeba histolytica</em><em>/</em>dispar 64 (20.9%)<em>, </em>and<em> Entamoeba coli </em>52 (16.8%). Significant difference was reported in prevalence rate between different parasitic species (????&lt; 0.05). Vegetable samples collected from Dar Saad market, show the highest contamination rate (94.4%) while vegetables collected from Al Mansura market showed the lowest contamination rate(50.0%). However, the parasitic contamination rates were not significantly different for samples collected from different markets. This study highlighted the importance of raw vegetables as the potential source of transmission for intestinal parasites to humans. Prevention methods such as proper washing or cooking of vegetables before consumption should be conveyed to consumers. In addition, comprehensive health education and hygienic practices, including washing hands after handling vegetables, should be provided to sellers and consumers.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Adelh Mohammed Qaid Muqbel and Adel Jumaan Awadh Binsaad ASSESSMENT OF ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND BIOFILM PRODUCTION AMONG BACTERIAL SPECIES ISOLATED FROM CONTACT LENSES 2023-07-01T20:25:21+00:00 Eidha Bin-Hameed [email protected] Abdul-Aziz Bin-Beishr [email protected] Abdul-Raheem Shames [email protected] Fatima Al-Salimy [email protected] Husam Habtoor [email protected] Mohammed Habtoor [email protected] Noha Al-assar [email protected] Omar Al-amodi [email protected] <p style="text-align: justify;">Contact lenses (CLs) wearing has been increased globally during recent decades, which is one of the main risk factors for developing several ocular infections. Resistant CLs bacterial infections are mainly due to the CLs contamination by bacteria producing biofilm. This study was aimed to assessment of antibiotics resistance and biofilm production among bacterial species isolated from contact lenses in Mukalla city, Hadhramout, Yemen. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 298 participants women during a period from October 2022 to January 2023. The CLs swab samples were collected, then inoculated onto culture media and incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 hrs. The bacterial isolates were identified by conventional bacteriological methods of cultural characteristics, Gram staining and biochemical test. Antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. Bacterial biofilm production on CLs was detected by tube method (TM) and Congo red agar (CRA) method. The prevalence of CLs bacterial infection was 54.4%. <em>Enterobacter spp.</em> 37.1%, followed by <em>Escherichia coli</em> 28.4%, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> 11.7%, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> 6.8% were the most common Gram-negative isolated from CLs. <em>Staphylococcus epidermides</em> 3.7% and other coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) 12.3% were the most common species of Gram-positive bacteria isolated from CLs. The CRA method was found to be effective phenotypic screening method for detection of biofilm production of bacterial isolates from CLs. Prevalence of antibiotics resistance and multi-drug resistance (MDR) biofilm producing strains was found. In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of CLs use by females in Mukalla city, Hadhramout especially for cosmetic purposes. CLs infection due to improper care practices leads to eye complications. Increasing awareness is crucial to avoid identified risk factors for ocular infection.</p> 2023-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Eidha Bin-Hameed, Abdul Aziz Bin Beishr, Abdul Raheem Shames, Fatima Al-Salimy, Husam Habtoor, Mohammed Habtoor, Noha Al-assar, and Omar Al-amodi