Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA University of Aden en-US Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences 2708-0684 Front Cover https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/102 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren Copyright (c) 2021 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CARICA PAPAYA L. SEEDS GROWN IN THE REPUBLIC OF YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/103 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aimed to investigate the phytochemical, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities of <em>Carica papaya </em>L. seeds extracts collected from Al Hudaydah city, Yemen (Latitude: 14°47′52″ N Longitude: 42°57′16″ E) during the months of January and February 2021.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The seed was extracted with different solvents by the cold percolation method. The disk diffusion method was employed to assess the antibacterial activity of the seed extract against six bacterial and four fungal strains. Spectrometric methods were employed to calculate the total alkaloids, anthocyanin, flavonoid, phenolic, quinones, saponin, steroids, terpenoid, tannin, and phenols contents, as well as the antioxidant activities.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Antibacterial and antifungal activity tests exhibited that the selected microorganisms are highly sensitive to the ethanolic and methanolic extracts of <em>C. papaya</em> L. seeds, followed by chloroform, water, and n-hexane extracts. The samples also demonstrated a significant DPPH, FRAP, and APTS radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoid, terpenoid, saponin, alkaloids, steroids, quinones, anthocyanin, tannin, and phenols, all of which potentially contribute to the antimicrobial activities of <em>C. papaya </em>L. seeds.</p> Nabil Q. M. Al-Hajj Copyright (c) 2021 Nabil Q. M. Al-Hajj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 93 102 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.103 CATALYTIC CRACKING OF HEAVY OIL OF ALIF FIELD – MARIB- YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/104 <p style="text-align: justify;">The study presents the results of the catalytic cracking process of heavy oil of the Alif – Marib field in Yemen. The best conditions of the process, pressure, temperature, and using zeolite HZSM-5 as catalyst were selected. Based on the characteristics of the heavy oil, the analyses were done using a gas chromatography technique and catalytic cracking unit designed in the laboratory of Chemical Engineering and Petrochemical faculty at Al-Baath University- Syria., refining process was done in Refining Company- Homs. The results of simple distillation of the cracking products at different range of temperature were (Gasoline= 19.5%; Kerosene=15%; Light gas oil= 36%; Distillate residue= 29.5%) and gases (CH4= 67.55 %; C2H4= 14.66 %; C2H6= 7.48 %; H3H8= 9.24%; C4H10=1.06 %).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Extraction by sulfuric acid was done. An 84.044% oil-free aromatic has been gotten. In order to remove total paraffins from the oily cut that has a high pour point, different solvents were used. The properties of the oily cut from which the paraffin wax was removed gave encouraging results.</p> Rokhsana M. Ismail Nadrah M. Husami Sahar Alrifaei Copyright (c) 2021 Rokhsana M. Ismail, Nadrah M. Husami, Sahar Alrifaei https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 103 108 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.104 SOME STUDIES ON RED BLOOD CELLS MORPHOLOGY OF HEALTHY AND DIABETIC PATIENTS IN TAIZ, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/105 <p style="text-align: justify;">The aim of this study was to: 1- Identify and quantify the prevalence of RBC abnormalities in healthy and diabetic subjects. 2- Provide supporting evidence about the relation between RBC storage duration at 4<sup>o</sup>C and alterations to RBC morphology (compare with the morphology at the time of collection). 3- The obtain information about how the number of normal cells in different times of storage declines as a function of the storage period. 4- Estimate the prevalence of red cell morphological changes in diabetic patients.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">One hundred and ninety-six slides of 49 healthy and 49 diabetic patients of different age groups were collected from November 2019 to March 2020.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Human venous blood samples were taken and anticoagulated with EDTA. samples were divided into 4 groups, group 1 was examined at once, and groups 2-4 were stored at 4<sup>o</sup>C for 24, 48, and 72 hours respectively.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">During the current study, abnormalities of erythrocyte morphology, prevalence, and histological effects of storage duration on the human blood cells were evaluated. 16 different types of abnormality in shapes of the red blood cells were identified in healthy subjects and 19 different shapes in diabetic subjects, with the difference in the prevalence percentage. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) exhibited statistically significant effects of storage time (24, 48, and 72 hours at 4<sup>0</sup>C) on RBC morphology. The present result also shows that the change in erythrocyte shapes at once beginning and during time storage were statistically significant between healthy and diabetic donors. These results are in line with previous laboratory studies on other parameters.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In conclusion, our observations indicate that morphological abnormalities of erythrocytes are common in healthy and diabetic subjects, and the slight effects of diabetic Mellitus on the changes observed in erythrocyte compare to healthy subjects over 72 hours of storage.</p> Ola A.A. Alareeqi Yaser H.A. Obady Mansoor Q. Al-Khulaidi Khalid Al-Mureish Copyright (c) 2021 Ola A.A. Alareeqi, Yaser H.A. Obady, Mansoor Q. Al-Khulaidi, Khalid Al-Mureish https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 109 123 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.105 THE EFFECT OF WET CUPPING THERAPY (AL-HIJAMAH) ON SOME BLOOD COMPONENTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/106 <p style="text-align: justify;">Cupping therapy (CT), also known as (Al-Hijamah) is one of the therapeutic techniques that were practiced in many countries of the world in ancient times and it is still used now. The current study was aimed to evaluate some components of the venous blood and comparing the results with that in the blood withdrawn during cupping therapy (CT). The method was carried out by taking blood samples from the scarified area that were made during CT on the skin and venous blood samples. Eighteen mostly healthy male participants were selected randomly between ages 25-61 years. About 5 ml of blood samples were collected from the vein and cupping site for each participant and biochemical parameters that are blood glucose, uric acid, and cholesterol were analyzed. All studied parameters were high in the cupping blood in comparison with the venous blood where it was noted that cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), as well as low-density lipoproteins (LDL), were statistically significant at (p&lt;0.001) while high-density lipoproteins (HDL), blood sugar and uric acid were statistically significant at (p=0.01), and urea was statistically significant at (p=0.05), while creatinine did not give statistical significance at (p&gt;0.05). The current study is consistent with other studies. CT helps in reducing some biological parameters that may be related to some metabolic diseases, so it could maintaining human health.</p> Adel A. M. Saeed Wafa F. S. Badulla Galal AK. A. Sheikh Copyright (c) 2021 Adel A. M. Saeed, Wafa F. S. Badulla, Galal AK. A. Sheikh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 124 130 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.106 DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED CIGARETTES IN ADEN (YEMEN) MARKETS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/107 <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study aimed at determining the nicotine content of some domestic and imported cigarettes and comparing the nicotine content among 12 types of familiar cigarettes sold in the markets of Aden Governorate (Yemen) using high-performance liquid chromatography linked with a UV detector, (HPLC-UV). The results of this study showed that the amount of nicotine in each cigarette was from 7.29 to 18.74 mg/g cigarettes with an average of 12.75mg/g cigarettes, in imported cigarettes, and between 11.34 to 17.52 mg/g cigarettes with an average of 14.40 mg/g in domestic cigarettes. Although the amount of nicotine in both domestic and imported cigarettes showed a large variation, but when comparing the averages of local and imported cigarettes, the statistical analysis showed that there were no statistically significant differences between the averages of local and imported cigarettes. The Nicotine content of all tested cigarettes (imported and local brands) was higher than the international standard (1mg/g tobacco).</p> Ahmed Thabet Ahmed Alsarahe Bassam Nasr Mgammal Sanad Copyright (c) 2021 Ahmed Thabet Ahmed Alsarahe, Bassam Nasr Mgammal Sanad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 131 138 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.107 STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS RESISTANCE AGAINST CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTIC IN ADEN-YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/108 <p style="text-align: justify;">The study was carried out to determine antibacterial resistance profiles of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), isolated from clinical samples (n: 352) of patients during the period, from January 2019 to July 2020 in five governmental and private medical laboratories of Aden governorate, Yemen. The results showed the percentage for resistance ratio is differentiated between samples and the category of cephalosporin antibiotic groups. The highest percentage of resistance was in the wound sample for Cefadroxil, Cefuroxime, and Ceftriaxone at (100%), in addition to 100% in the pus, CSF, and sputum samples for Ceftriaxone antibiotic. Moreover, Cefadroxil has 100 % of resistance in semen, ear, and sputum samples. However, the Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the pharyngeal sample not showed any resistance to all cephalosporin antibiotic groups.</p> Eman Abdo Ali Omniat N. M. Alshuaibi Khaled S. A. Alsweedi Copyright (c) 2021 Eman Abdo Ali, Omnia N. M. Alshuaibi, Khaled S. A. Alsweedi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2021-09-30 2021-09-30 2 3 139 144 10.47372/ejua-ba.2021.3.108