Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA University of Aden en-US Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences 2708-0684 Front Cover https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/191 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren Copyright (c) 2023 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 THE EFFECT OF USING NEEM LEAF POWDER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO ANTIBIOTICS ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF BROILER https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/192 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted in the poultry house, Nasser faculty for Agricultural Sciences, University of Aden, for the period from 28/1/2021AD until 3/3/2021AD, with the aim of knowing the effect of using neem leaf powder as an alternative to antibiotics on some productive and physiological traits of broilers. In this study 150 unsexed ROSS broiler chicks were used, which were divided into three treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4, T5) with three replicates for each treatment, and ten chicks for each replicate, and treatment T1 represented the control (0) and treatment T2 Oxytetracycline antibiotic 160 mg/kg feed, T3 treatment Oxytetracycline antibiotic 240 mg/kg feed, T4 neem leaf powder 2g/kg feed, T5 neem leaf powder 4g/kg feed.This study showed that there were significant differences (P&lt;0.05) for the characteristics of body weight, weight gain, and feed conversion factor for the neem and antibiotic groups compared with the control group, while no significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed for the two characteristics of feed consumption and mortality among the experimental groups. As for the characteristics of the carcass, no significant differences were observed for the gizzard, spleen, belly fat, dressing ratio among the experimental groups, while significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed for each of the liver of the neem groups (T4, T5) compared with the antibiotic and control groups (T3, T2, T1), and heart for neem and antibiotic groups compared with the control. Regarding the blood characteristics, there were no significant (P&lt;0.05) differences between the experimental groups. As for the biochemical characteristics of the blood (total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid), significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were observed for the T4, T5 and anti-Neem groups. The T3 antibiotic compared with the T2 antibiotic group and the T1 control group, as for blood glucose, no significant differences (P&lt;0.05) were, we conclude from the experiment that neem leaf powder had a positive effect on the productive traits (average body weight, weight gain, and food conversion factor), the relative weight of the liver and heart, as well as the blood biochemical indicators, total protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid.</p> Salem Nasser Hussain Muhammad Abdullah Ahmad Baqib Copyright (c) 2023 Salem Nasser Hussain, Muhammad Abdullah Ahmad Baqib https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 240 247 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.192 THE EFFECT OF ADDING A PROBIOTIC TO DRINKING WATER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF THE HOT SUMMER SEASON https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/193 <p style="text-align: justify;">The experiment was conducted in the poultry house at Nasser College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Aden, during the period from 7/8/2021 to 11/8/2021 A.D. in order to know the effect of adding a probiotic (0, 50, 100 mg/l water) under hot summer conditions. In the experiment, 108 R0SS broilers were used, and they were randomly distributed into three treatments, with 36 broilers for each treatment and three replicates for each treatment and 12 broilers for each replicate. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between the different treatments in most of the studied traits (feed consumption rate, feed conversion factor, mortality rate, productivity per square meter of live weight), but there was a better improvement in the treatments of probiotic addition. While it was noticed that the addition of the probiotic was significant at the probability level (P&lt;0.05) in the body weight and the rate of weight gain.</p> Omar Abdul Majead Salam Osan Mohammed Saleh Hassan Copyright (c) 2023 Omar Abdul Majead Salam, Osan Mohammed Saleh Hassan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 248 252 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.193 ROLE OF NON-CONTRAST MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANGIOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THE ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS OF THE EXTRACRANIAL CAROTID ARTERIES https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/194 <p style="text-align: justify;">Formation of atherosclerotic plaque in the carotid arteries is the leading factor of hemodynamic disturbance in the cere-bral arteries. Visualization and characteristic of these plaques are most important factors from the viewpoint of preven-tive treatment- surgical or conservative. The goal of this study was to assess sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast MRA in evaluation and characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques in the extracranial carotid arteries. Our data was ob-tained from 130 patients: 38 were female (29.2%) and 92-male (70.8%). The middle age is 54.8 years (range 17-78 years).&nbsp; Patients were subjected to 3 diagnosis procedures, namely 85 patients were investigated by Doppler USG &amp; 45 patients by MRA method. All patients underwent selective cerebral arterial angiography by DSA as a gold standard method. From 130 patients 27 patients had no atherosclerotic disease; 57 had bilateral atherosclerotic changes; 46 pa-tients had monolateral carotid atherosclerotic process. From 260 investigated carotid arteries 51 arteries were detected with complete occlusion (22 right and 21 left occlusion), in 4 patients (8 carotid arteries) bilateral occlusion was seen. 54 carotid arteries had severe degree of stenosis. From this stenosis 27 arteries were more than 90%.32 carotid arteries had moderate degree of stenosis. In 23 carotid arteries mild degree was seen, but in a 100 carotid arteries had complete pa-tency. We concluded that complex noninvasive methods- colored Doppler USG and non-contrast MRA distinguished good accuracy (90%) and may be used as an alternative to DSA.</p> Ahmed Awadh Bahomail Buthaina Saeed Ahmed Alaghbari Khaldoon Ali Salem Hitham Copyright (c) 2023 Ahmed Awadh Bahomail, Buthaina Saeed Ahmed Alaghbari, Khaldoon Ali Salem Hitham https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 253 262 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.194 PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA AND GIARDIA LAMBLIA AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING SOME HOSPITALS IN AL-MANSSORA DIRECTORATE, ADEN – YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/195 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted from October 2019 to October 2020.To determine the prevalence of <em>Entamoeba histolytica</em> and <em>Giardia lamblia</em> among patients attending some hospitals (22 May Hospital, Cuban Hospital, Al-Naqeeb Hospital, Al Salam Hospital) in Al-manssora Directorate, Aden - Yemen. This study included 603 patients. Stool samples were obtained from all participants and laboratory conducted using a direct mount preparation with physiological normal saline (0.9%) and iodine stain. The results of the current study showed that the overall prevalence rate was 384/603 (63.68%). The prevalence of <em>E. histolytica</em> and <em>G. lamblia</em> was higher among males (33.34%) than that in female (30.34%). The prevalence rate of these parasites was higher in the age group between 20-67 years old (36.31%), followed by the age group (10-19) years. The study concluded that the prevalence of <em>Entamoeba histolytica </em>and<em> Giardia lamblia </em>among diarrheal patients in Al-manssora Directorate, Aden – Yemen was high</p> Arwa Mohammed Mohammed Al-mansup Khaled Nasher Qahtan Salem Copyright (c) 2023 Arwa Mohammed Mohammed Al-mansup, Khaled Nasher Qahtan Salem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 263 275 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.195 A STUDY ON THE DEFLUORIDATION FROM WATER BY USING LOCAL LIMESTONE https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/196 <p style="text-align: justify;">Removal of excess fluoride [F-] from the water has been attempted by several authors by using different materials both natural and artificial. The main aim of this study was to the fluoride removal by using the local limestone adopting column method. The use of limestone obtained from the National Company of Cement (NCC) at Wadi Saim deposit and Wadi Nakhleen deposit, in Lahj Governorate, Yemen. X-ray spectroscopy analyses revealed that that limestone are classified as high and very high pure limestone, respectively. Local limestone has fluoride removal abilities by phosphoric acid (PA)- local crushed Limestone treatment (PACLT), with the treated water conforming to WHO guidelines for Fluoride in drinking water. Fluoride removal and pH of treated water attained stability within 3ℎ for defluoridation from 10 mg/L [F-], to 0.20 mg/L with 0.68 mM [PA]. The results may be useful for suitability of local limestone for fluoride removal from drinking water.</p> Shaif Mohammed Kasem Saleh Radhwan Mohammed Saleh Amal Hasen Copyright (c) 2023 Shaif Mohammed Kasem Saleh, Radhwan Mohammed Saleh, Amal Hasen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 276 283 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.196 MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR THREE GENERA OF MALVACEAE SENSU LATO IN TOOR AL-BAHA DISTRICT, LAHEJ GOVERNORATE, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/197 <p style="text-align: justify;">The current study presents morphological characteristics of the three genera, that belong to the family Malvaceae s.l., in Toor Al-Baha district, Lahej Governorate, Yemen, from August 2020 to January 2022, an introductory order deals with the most significant features, synonyms, local names, distribution in the study area, in addition to an identification key for separation between of three genera in the studied area, and up-to-date nomenclature for all studied taxa are presented, by using the modern classification of Malvaceae which referred to sub-family is Malvoideae, within family Malvaceae s.l. The present study a revision of the morphological characteristics of three species grow native in the studied area are (<em>Cienfuegosia welshii</em>, <em>Gossypium arboreum </em>and <em>Senra incana</em>), The vegetative and reproductive morphological characteristics proved that they are with high values in distinguishing between them.</p> Nora Mohammed Al-Saqaf Mohammed Othman Saad Saeed Al-Hawshabi Copyright (c) 2023 Nora Mohammed Al-Saqaf Mohammed, Othman Saad Saeed Al-Hawshabi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 284 291 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.197 PREMATURE ONSET OF STROKE IN KHAT CHEWERS IN ADMITTED CASES TO ADEN HOSPITALS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/198 <p style="text-align: justify;">Khat chewing is a common habit in Yemen and east African countries. Millions of people chew khat especially young adult male chew khat leaves daily for its euphoric and energetic effects and for the increase of alertness due to action of cathinone (amphetamine like substance) which lead to increase of blood pressure, heart rate and incidence of AMI. Khat use is widespread in some parts of Yemen, even among children. The prevalence of khat chewing has been estimated at 80% for males and 50% for females in the capital Sana'a at age fifteen and above. The aim of the study was done to earlier sage onset of stroke in khat chewing with relation to other risk factors of stroke. This study was conducted during the period from January 2022 to Jun. 2022, during which 150 patients admitted with stroke. The basic information was collected through special questionnaires for this purpose. The khat chewing group was 83 case compromised 55.3%. The study showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between khat chewing and the age group of less than 55 years age (P - 0.000).</p> Reyad Mohamed A. Al-sobehi Omer Abobeker Basselm Copyright (c) 2023 Reyad Mohamed A. Al-sobehi, Omer Abobeker Basselm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 292 295 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.198 THE TREATMENT OUTCOME OF INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE WITH UNCOMPLICATED SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION (SAM) FED WITH SUPPLEMENTARY SUCKLING TECHNIQUE IN KHARTOUM, SUDAN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/199 <p style="text-align: justify;">It is worth noting that 20 million children suffering from severe malnutrition are less than five years old, and 3.8 million of them are less than six months old. In Sudan the stunting rate was above 30 % that is classified by World Health Organization (WHO) as ‘high ‘. The Supplementary Suckling Technique may seem easy in theory, but find it difficult to apply, as the method must be well explained to the mother and supported to succeed in using it. A prospective hospital-based study was done between January1st to December31st, 2020 among randomly selected infants less than 6 months of age with SAM following breastfeeding failure. Infants’ anthropometric indices were daily measured and recorded. Supplementary suckling technique was used in the management with high or low protein-based milk formula as DF100 or F75. The outcome of these infants was recorded as cured, died, defaulter or in no recovery state. The male infants represented 22 (59.5%) of the total infants (37) with a male to female ratio of 1.47: 1. It was noticed that 18 (48.6%) of infants were in the age group 2-4 months, and 8 (21.6%) SAM infants in the age groups of &gt; 4 and &lt; 6 months while 11 (29.7%) SAM infants in the age groups of &lt; 2 months. About 78.4% of SAM infants aged less or equal to 4 months. Improving breastfeeding practices effectively are needed. Severe acute malnutrition in infants less than 6 months can be managed successfully as inpatients with an adopted protocol. SAM infants less than 6 months of age with D F 100 and F 75 feeding using Supplementary Suckling Technique have shown improvement in their weight gain.</p> Mohamed Salem Mohamed Baazab Jalal Ali Bilal Iman Ali Ba-Saddik Ali Mohammed Arabi Copyright (c) 2023 Mohamed Salem Mohamed Baazab, Jalal Ali Bilal, Iman Ali Ba-Saddik, Ali Mohammed Arabi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 296 303 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.199 PREVALENCE OF SCABIES CASES IN TWO PUBLIC HOSPITALS ADEN / YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/200 <p style="text-align: justify;">Scabies has become a major public health problem, especially in low resource settings. In this area no previous study regarding scabies prevalence and associated risk factors have been conducted. Therefore, this study was carried. The aim of this study to provide data on the position of scabies with regard to prevalence and the factors related to it and to recommended measures for prevention and control of infestation. A cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 6 months from 1 January to 30 June 2022 in dermatology outpatient clinic of two main teaching hospitals Al-Gamhoria and Al-Wahda, in Aden Government. Out of total of 2575 patients examined, 90 had scabies (3.4%) with highest prevalence rate in children aged 8- 15 years (27.8%). The infection was higher in males than females (57.8 % vs 42.2 %). The present study concludes that poor socio-economic conditions, such as illiteracy, overcrowding and sharing room, joblessness have a statistically significant relation with scabies. In addition, to family history of itchy skin lesions.</p> Ekram Ali Badwi Seena Abdulla Yousuf Copyright (c) 2023 Ekram Ali Badwi, Seena Abdulla Yousuf https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 304 312 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.200 THE EVALUATION OF SOME BRANDS OF LEVOCETIRIZINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE FILM-COATED TABLETS FOR QUALITY AND EQUIVALENCE SOLD IN ADEN, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/201 <p style="text-align: justify;">Generic drugs are less expensive than innovator drugs, and their proliferation has become a problem in low-income countries. They need to be therapeutically and pharmaceutically equivalent to the innovator. Levocetirizine dihydrochloride is an effective drug for relieving the signs of chronic urticaria, perennial allergic rhinitis, and seasonal allergic rhinitis. Our investigation into this drug in private pharmacies in Aden, Yemen, revealed that it is sold under the names of 28 brands from different countries of origin. Because of this, it is difficult for medical professionals and patients who use this medication without a prescription to select a suitable, safe, and cost-effective drug product. We assessed the quality and equivalency of six different brands of levocetirizine dihydrochloride film-coated tablets and assigned codes A, B, C, D, E, and F, with Brand A serving as the reference. The UV analytical method was evaluated for quantifying the drug from the tablets. The results indicated that it was accurate and precise. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time, and dissolution. In order to compare the drug's dissolving profiles, the difference factor (f<sub>1</sub>) and similarity factor (f<sub>2</sub>) were used. For all six brands, the physicochemical parameter results met the acceptable limits. All six brands showed evidence of dissolving within 15 minutes, with values ranging from 80.05 ±0.81 to 103.83 ±0.90 which were within the recommended value of 80% within 30 minutes for oral solid dosage forms intended for immediate release. According to the f<sub>1</sub> and f<sub>2</sub> results, only brands B, D, and E were comparable to brand A and could be used interchangeably. In conclusion, four of the six brands are interchangeable. For high-quality public health, a thorough analysis and ongoing monitoring are needed to ascertain the quality and equivalency of the medications marketed under various brands.</p> Sana Saleh Al-Kubati Olfat Saleh Ahmed Randa Mohammed Saif Copyright (c) 2023 Sana Saleh Al-Kubati, Olfat Saleh Ahmed, Randa Mohammed Saif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 313 321 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.201 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF DRINKING WATER ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/202 <p style="text-align: justify;">The experiment was carried out in the barn of Nasser College of Agricultural Sciences, University of Lahij, 27/1/2022 to 2/3/2022 to study the effect of drinking water sources on the performance of broiler chickens. In the experiment, 135 unsexed chicks of the ROSS breed were divided into three treatments, according to the water sources., Each treatment was divided into three replicates, with 15 chicks for each replicate. The results of the research showed the effect of water sources significantly (P&lt;0.05) where the treatment T3 outperformed the two treatments T1 and T2 in body weight, carcass weight, feed conversion factor, dressing ratio, breast weight, percentage of breast and gizzard weight. Water sources did not affect the amount of feed consumed and the amount of water consumed.</p> Nasser Ahmed Mohamed Jamba Mazen Nasser Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Nasser Ahmed Mohamed Jamba, Mazen Nasser Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 322 326 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.202 VEGETATION MAPPING AND DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD FOR THE VEGETATION TYPIFICATION IN THE ARABIAN PENINSULA https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/203 <p style="text-align: justify;">The study aims to generate vegetation mapping for the study area's existing vegetation and apply a vegetation typification approach that can be used to identify the vegetation structure of any region in the Arabian Peninsula. To highlight the plant diversity and the vegetation communities for nature conservation purposes, a case study in Albaha region, Saudi Arabia is presented, in which the natural vegetation communities and vegetation types of one of the Important Plant Species Areas (IPSA) of Saudi Arabia is evaluated. In an area of 167.6 km2, 97 samples, each with 20X20 m were laid out covering the whole ecological zones of the study area. Data on flora, vegetation cover and topography were gathered from each sample site using Braun-Blanquet method. ITC approach of vegetation typification according to three dimensions (trees, shrubs, and herbs) is applied to identify the structures of each vegetation type. The results showed 319 plant species belonging to 228 genera and 75 families. These species were analyzed and classified into three plant communities and 14 different vegetation types using multivariate analysis program (MVSP) software. Using the percentage of trees, shrubs and herbs, the three-dimensional graphics of vegetation structure presented in this study can be used to determine the vegetation structure of any region in the Arabian Peninsula.</p> Abdul Wali A. Al-Khulaidi Ali A. Al-Namazi Copyright (c) 2023 Abdul Wali A. Al-Khulaidi, Ali A. Al-Namazi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 327 338 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.203 PREFORMULATION STUDY OF CEFTRIAXONE AND CIPROFLOXACIN FOR LIPID BASED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/204 <p style="text-align: justify;">Several tests should be performed to rule out any potential physical or chemical interactions between the active pharmaceutical ingredient and the various excipients that might be utilized in the manufacturing of the drug formula. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy is a simple technique for the detection of changes within excipient-drug mixtures. In addition to speeding up the aging process of drugs and their possible interactions with excipients, isothermal stress testing was achieved. In this study, Ceftriaxone sodium (CTX), and Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIPRO) as active ingredients were subjected to several tests to exclude any interaction with the excipients that could be used in the formulation of lipid base biodegradable antibiotic for prevention of post-operative infection. The compatibility was tested by using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and isothermal stability testing (IST). As a result, the IR spectral interpretation showed that the spectra obtained from the binary mixtures match the original spectra of API. Generally, there was no obvious and influential change of any characteristic peaks which confirms the absence of chemical interaction between the CTX or CIPRO and excipients. In the IST, the API – excipient mixture shows no significant change in physical properties. There was no change in color, gas formation, and liquefaction of the mixture stored under stress conditions.&nbsp; There was no significant change in the amount of API after storage in stressed conditions at statistical significance (p = 0.05). In conclusion, there are no notable interactions between API and the various excipients that could be employed to create biodegradable lipid-based delivery systems that are effective at preventing post-operative infection.</p> Mahmoud M. Alburyhi Abdalwali A. Saif Randa M. Saif Copyright (c) 2023 Mahmoud M. Alburyhi, Abdalwali A. Saif, Randa M. Saif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 339 350 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.204 STABILITY STUDY OF GENTAMICIN SULPHATE INJECTION USING HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/205 <p style="text-align: justify;">Stability is the main quality characteristic of any drug product, it involves changes in physical, chemical and biopharmaceutical properties.&nbsp; The current work studied the stability of gentamicin (Gen) sulfate injection using HPLC, four samples of Gen were selected. Inj-I, Inj-II, Inj-III, and Inj-IV. The selected injections were stored at room temperature and analyzed at zero time then after three and six months. The analysis was achieved using reverse-phase chromatography with isocratic elution at a flow rate of 1.1 ml/min. Chromatography analysis was performed on the ODS (C8) column, 15× 0.45 cm, 5µm particle size, the column temperature was 30 ºC, and a manual injector with a 20 µl loop was used for the injection of the sample solution and mobile phase. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol/water / glacial acetic acid/sodium 1-heptane sulfonate. The eluent was monitored with a UV-Detector at a wavelength of 330 nm with a flow rate of 1.1 ml/min. The results of the analysis showed that the pH values of all samples decreased slightly however, it was still within the acceptance range of USP. The influence of storage temperature on the degradation of the drug was evidenced whereas the Inj-I sample was the least degraded, while Inj-IV was the highest degraded sample. The accuracy was evaluated by the percent of recovery at three different concentrations in the range (99.38-100%), the precision of the method was satisfactory, and the values of relative standard deviation were less than 2%.</p> Shaif Mohammed Kasem Saleh Safa Fadhel Mohammed Al-Nawi Wafa Farooq Suleman Badulla Copyright (c) 2023 Shaif Mohammed Kasem Saleh, Safa Fadhel Mohammed Al-Nawi, Wafa Farooq Suleman Badulla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-12-31 2022-12-31 3 4 351 358 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.4.205