Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA University of Aden en-US Electronic Journal of University of Aden for Basic and Applied Sciences 2708-0684 Front Cover https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/176 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren Copyright (c) 2022 Abdulrahman Ahmed Mohren https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 SOME POLYNOMIAL INEQUALITIES IN THE COMPLEX DOMAIN WITH PRESCRIBED ZEROS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/177 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this paper certain polynomial inequalities with restricted zeros are given, which generalize and refine some well-known polynomial inequalities due to Ankeny and Rivlin, Dewan, Singh and Mir, Mir, Wani and Hussain and others.</p> Adeeb Tawfik Hasson Al-Saeedi Dhekra Mohammed Mohsen Algawi Copyright (c) 2022 Adeeb Tawfik Hasson Al-Saeedi, Dhekra Mohammed Mohsen Algawi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 124 129 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.177 TUNING THE STRUCTURAL, OPTICAL AND PHOTOVOLTAIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FABRICATED N-TIO\(_2\)/P-CUO AND N-TIO\(_2\)/P-CU\(_2\)O SOLAR CELLS BY CHANGING THE BACK CONTACT ELECTRODES https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/178 <p style="text-align: justify;">The current work focuses on working a comparison between two solar cells made with the combination, <em>n</em>-TiO<sub>2</sub>/p-CuO, and <em>n</em>-TiO<sub>2</sub>/p-Cu<sub>2</sub>O devices. The structural, optical, and photovoltaic characteristics were detailed.&nbsp; In the optical section, the optical measurements for the TiO<sub>2</sub> (120 <em>nm</em>), CuO (200 <em>nm</em>), and Cu<sub>2</sub>O (200 <em>nm</em>) thin films were illustrated, and then the energy of optical transition was calculated based on the Tauc formula for each layer. The direct optical gap energies of TiO<sub>2</sub>, CuO, and Cu<sub>2</sub>O thin films are 3.24, 1.77, and 2.18 eV, respectively. The front contact electrode in both systems is an ITO- coated glass layer, while the back contact electrodes are Pt, Ni, Au, Co, Ag, Cu, Al, and Mo. The effect of various metals as back contact electrodes on the photovoltaic characteristics of fabricated devices was investigated. The optical and structural characteristics showed the superiority of the fabricated device n-TiO<sub>2</sub>/p-CuO over the fabricated device n-TiO<sub>2</sub>/p-Cu<sub>2</sub>O.</p> M. A. Dabban Ammar Qasem Copyright (c) 2022 M. A. Dabban, Ammar Qasem https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 130 144 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.178 INFLUENCE OF ANISOTROPIC TURBULENT PLASMA ON THE PARTIALLY COHERENT FOUR-PETAL GAUSSIAN VORTEX BEAMS https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/179 <p style="text-align: justify;">Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the analytical expressions for partially coherent four-petal Gaussian (FPG) vortex beams propagating in turbulent plasma are obtained, the influence of the turbulent plasma parameters on beam profile and coherence of the beams is discussed in detail using numerical examples. It is found that a four-petal Gaussian-shaped intensity distribution will eventually transform into a Gaussian distribution after propagating in turbulent plasma. Meanwhile, turbulent plasma parameters will also influence the coherence characterizations of the beams.</p> Abdu A. Alkelly M. A. H. Khaled Labiba F. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 Abdu A. Alkelly, M. A. H. Khaled, Labiba F. Hassan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 145 151 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.179 INVENTORY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATES IN THE DISTRICT OF HAIFAN, TAIZ GOVERNORATE, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/180 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aims to identify and characterize terrestrial vertebrates in Haifan District, Taiz Governorate - Republic of Yemen. Haifan District is located in the southeast of Yemen and is characterized by a biodiversity rich in the presence of terrestrial vertebrates. The study revealed 32 terrestrial vertebrate species belonging to three classes: 1- Amphibians with one order (Anura), two families, two genera, and only two species. 2- Reptiles with one order related to 10 families, 14 genera, and 20 species. 3- Mammals with five orders, belonging to ten families, 10 genera, and 10 species. The results also showed that 29 of these species are within the most stable assessment (LC) in the criteria of IUCN. In contrast, 3 species are placed within the criteria of (DD) assessment according to the IUCN Red List. This study also showed that twenty species suffer from the risk of extinction (EN) and twelve species are close to the threat of extinction (TN) according to the Yemeni Red List.</p> Waheed Mohammed Alsarory Copyright (c) 2022 Waheed Mohammed Alsarory https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 152 157 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.180 SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS AMONG MULTI-TRANSFUSED BETA THALASSEMIA PATIENTS ATTENDING AT THE YEMENI SOCIETY FOR THALASSEMIA - SANA'A, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/181 <p>Regular blood transfusion is one of the most important and emergency treatment methods for thalassemia patients. This category of patients is considered sensitive to infection because their continued survival is linked to blood transfusion, and therefore the possibility of infection is great, especially in light of the war and the deterioration of health services in Yemen. Among this infection is the hepatitis B virus, which causes serious complications such as acute hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the study was done to determine incidence of hepatitis B virus and risk factors among Multi-Transfused Beta Thalassemia Patients attending at The Yemeni Society for Thalassemia and Genetic Blood Disorder (YSTGBD) Sana'a –Yemen. This study was conducted during the period from January 2021 to December 2021, during which 200 Blood samples were collected from beta thalassemia patients attending at (YSTGBD). All samples were examined using the ECLIA technique, during which the basic information was collected through special questionnaires for this purpose. The rate of incidence by HBsAg in all study samples was determined to be 7(3.5%). The study showed that there was a statistically significant relationship between infection with the hepatitis B virus and the age group of more than 10 years age (<em>P</em> = 0.042), in addition to that number of blood transfusions received by HBsAg positive was significantly higher than that of HBsAg negative thalassemia patients (<em>P</em> = 0.022).</p> Mojahed Abdullah A. Al-Shawia Qais Yusuf M. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2022 Mojahed Abdullah A. Al-Shawia, Qais Yusuf M. Abdullah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 158 162 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.181 ISOLATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILES OF MICROORGANISMS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTION AMONG PATIENTS IN ADEN CITY, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/182 <p style="text-align: justify;">Urinary tract infection is an infection that usually affects all people around the world, regardless of gender and ages. Therefore, the present study aimed to isolate microorganisms causing urinary tract infection and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles among patients attending some private hospitals in Aden city, Yemen.<br>A total of 78 specimens of midstream urinary were collected from patients presenting in some private hospitals and centers located in Aden - Yemen, during the period from January to August 2021. Urine samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Also, the samples were cultured in different media and then incubated aerobically for 18-24 h at 37°C. The bacteria were isolated and diagnosed, and then the bacterial isolates were examined and their sensitivity to antibiotics, using the disc diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer).<br>Of the 78 samples, 57 (73.08%) were positive for the growth of pathogenic bacteria, 3 (3.85%) fungi, while 3 (3.85%) were negative and 15 samples were discarded for incomplete data. A higher rate of isolates was obtained from negative 33 (55%) compared to positive bacteria 24 (40%). The of infection in females was 48 (55%), while the number of males was 12 (20%). The highest infection recorded was <em>Streptococcus agalactiae</em> 12/57 (21%), followed by <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> 9 (15.7%), then <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em>, <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em> and <em>Escherichia coli</em> each 6 (10.5%). The highest sensitivity of 94.7% was recorded by the antibiotics levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. But the isolated Gram-negative bacteria showed a sensitivity of 100%. Gram-negative bacteria showed moderate sensitivity against tetracycline 58%, gentamicin 42% and ceftriaxone 45.5%. While lower sensitivity rates were observed for Co-Trimoxazole 31.6%, Cefotaxime 15.8%, and Ampicillin/Sulbactam 15.8%. Cephalexin, linezolid and cloxacillin have demonstrated complete resistance to the antibiotics used. There is a high prevalence of bacterial UTIs among women. Levofloxacin is the most effective antibiotic in treating UTIs, followed by amikacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Ampicillin / Sulbactam, Co-trimoxazole, Cefotaxime, Tazobactam / Pipracillin. It is considered the most resistant antibiotic of bacteria isolated from urinary tract infection.<br>The results confirmed the resistance of the isolated urinary tract bacteria to some of the antibiotics used in our study. Accordingly, we recommend our doctors to take into consideration the developments in the use of antibiotics and resistance by bacteria.</p> Khaled N. Q. Alaa A. M. Amal K. A. Amira Q. M. Fatima A. A. Kholood W. A. Marwa N. M. Rasha H. A. Shifa S. M. Copyright (c) 2022 Khaled N. Q., Alaa A. M., Amal K. A., Amira Q. M., Fatima A. A., Kholood W. A., Marwa N. M., Rasha H. A., Shifa S. M. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 163 175 IMPROVEMENT AND REPRODUCTION TWO CULTIVARS OF LONG AND MEDIUM STAPLE COTTON BY USING INDIVIDUAL SELECTION https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/183 <p style="text-align: justify;">A Field experiment was carried out at the experimental farm of El-kod Agricultural Research Station, Abyan Governorate during 2012/2013, 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons. The study has aimed to improve characters of growth, yield and its components of long-staple cotton cultivar (Muallem 2000) and middle-staple cotton cultivar (Acala S.J-2) by using individual selection.<br>The results indicate to the standard deviation is decreased for plant height during 2014/2015 season to 17.7% and 7.3%, the height of the first sympodia to 4.62% and 8.7%, the number of monopodia / plant to 1.49% and 25.8%, the number of sympodia / plant to 1.95% and 14.4% branch/plant as well as the results indicate to the coefficient of variation is decreased for number of open boll/plant to 8.8% and 17.2%, seed cotton yield/plant to 17.51% and 20.1% for both cultivars respectively.<br>Pure of Percentage increase of 99% for cultivars (Muallem 2000) and (Acala S.J-2) on season 2014/2015 by take out plant different on variety (Muallem 2000) and (Acala S.J-2) depends on flowers petals, boll shape, number of locule containing seeds, lint colour and seeds colour.<br>The results refer to percentage genetic advance for number of open boll/plant on 2014/2015 to 40% and 45%, Broad Sense Heritability to 22% and 18%, in addition to that the genetic advance percentage seed cotton yield/plant to 55% and 33%, Broad Sense Heritability to 30% and 21% for both cultivars respectively.</p> Mohammed Salem Al-khashah Basel Abdulla Alkor Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammed Salem Al-khashah, Basel Abdulla Alkor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 176 182 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.183 THE EFFECT OF THE WAVE FUNCTION PARAMETERS ON THE ATOM LASER DENSITY https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/184 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper studies the effect of the wave function parameters on the density of&nbsp; <sup>87</sup><em>Rb</em> atoms laser. The density equation has been derived through the use of Thomas-Fermi approximation, Green function and the stationary phase approximations. We investigated the change of density behavior with the effect of Rabi frequency, period of output coupling and detuning frequency. Consequently the number of released atoms can be controlled by determining the suitable parameters necessary for producing the best atom laser beam.</p> Hatim O. Alnadary Abdu A. AlKelly Huda M. Alsarhi Copyright (c) 2022 Hatim O. Alnadary, Abdu A. AlKelly, Huda M. Alsarhi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 183 189 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.184 IMPLICATIONS OF MANTLE XENOLITHS IN THE PLIOCENE-QUATERNARY BASALTS FROM THE SHAWRAN CRATER, BIR ALI AREA, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/185 <p style="text-align: justify;">Mantle xenoliths in basalt and tuffaceous volcanoes at the Shawran Crater, Bir Ali area, along the southeastern coast of Yemen are very useful to elucidate the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath the area, which is characterised by rift tectonic activity and volcanism during the Pliocene–Quaternary period. The studied mantle xenoliths are mostly fresh showing igneous textures and composed mainly of spinel harzburgite and lherzolite, in addition to, less prominently, dunite. Spinel harzburgite and lherzolite are holocrystalline with abundant granular spinel that occurs interstitially to olivine, orthopyroxene, and clinopyroxene. The forsterite content of olivine is high (Fo<sub>89–91</sub>) attesting its mantle residue origin. Orthopyroxene is mostly enstatite (En<sub>89–92</sub>), and clinopyroxene is diopsidic in composition (Wo<sub>24–47</sub>En<sub>49–52 </sub>Fs<sub>2–4</sub>). Spinel Cr# (Cr/(Cr + Al) is distinguishable between lherzolites (Cr# = 0.12–0.15) and harzburgites (Cr# = 0.20–0.31). The calculated oxygen fugacity (log<em>f</em>O<sub>2</sub>) of the studied lherzolites (−1.76 to −0.20) and harzburgite (−2.7 to −0.98) xenoliths, and their equilibration temperature (~ 820–1,145°C) at about 1.5 GPa pressure, along with their mineralogical and petrological characteristics, are all support their evolution by mixed enrichment from a fertile and depleted asthenospheric mantle beneath the Bir Ali area.</p> Abdelmonem M. Habtoor Ibrahim A. Al-Akhaly Ali S. Lashdaf Copyright (c) 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 190 203 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.185 CONCENTRATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM\(_{2.5}\)) AND BLACK CARBON (BC) IN AEROSOL SAMPLES IN AL-ZUBAIRY AREA IN SANA’A, YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/187 <p style="text-align: justify;">This research aims to study the air pollution due to fine Particulate Matter of radius less than 2.5µm (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) and Black Carbon concentration (BC) in air samples. Aerosol PM<sub>2.5 </sub>samples were collected from the rooftop of the National Oncology Center site in Al-Zubairy area in Sana’a Yemen. A Microprocessor Controlled Aerosol Sampling device ISAP1050e (Gerhard Schulze Automation Engineering, Germany company) was used to collect samples. The mass concentration of PM<sub>2.5 </sub>of collected samples ranged from 14.27 to 159.09 µg/m<sup>3</sup> with an average of 32.66µg/m<sup>3</sup>. The PM<sub>2.5</sub> results were compared with the World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 guideline of PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration in air. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations and temperature for both fall and summer samples. However, analysis showed a positive correlation between PM<sub>2.5 </sub>concentrations and relative humidity for fall samples and a negative correlation for summer samples. The black carbon (BC) concentrations in PM<sub>2.5</sub> samples were measured using a Smoke Stain Reflectometer (SSR) device. The BC concentration ranged from 1.84 to 3.90 µg/m<sup>3</sup> with an average of 2.90 µg/m<sup>3</sup>. The BC results were compared with some international reported results. The Air Quality Index (AQI) of 78.95% of PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations was higher than the standard limit (AQI &lt; 100) developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).</p> Ahmed Khalid Abdul-Rahim Nabilah Ali Al-Sowaidi Zaid Abdullah Eadan Copyright (c) 2022 Ahmed Khalid Abdul-Rahim, Nabilah Ali Al-Sowaidi, Zaid Abdullah Eadan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 204 213 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.187 STUDY OF A NEW PASSIVE SOLAR DESALINATION DESIGN WITH A HEAT RECYCLING SYSTEM https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/188 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study presents a new and innovative suggestion to design a solar water desalination system by the direct passive method, with the aim of raising productivity by recycling the energy lost during the desalination process and raising the efficiency of condensation. In this study, the innovative design was evaluated to demonstrate its ability to increase the productivity of direct passive solar desalination while maintaining simplicity of installation and ease of operation.&nbsp; A prototype of the design was built to make a detailed study on the efficiency of the design and its ability to raise productivity under several different operational and climatic conditions in the city of Aden - Yemen, where several experiments were made to desalinate seawater taken from the city's coasts and the water of semi-salty wells in the city of Aden to compare the readings different. The results prove that the innovative design can raise productivity up to 80% higher than normal. The effect of pond water depth and salinity on productivity was studied. The results show that the higher the water depth in the evaporation basin, the higher the production capacity, and the higher the water salinity, the lower the production capacity of inactive direct solar desalination systems. This study also provides an assessment of the quality of the water produced by the innovative design by carrying out several chemical tests and making a comparison with the water quality before desalination to ensure that the design is capable of desalinating seawater or semi-salty well water to produce potable water. The results were confirmed for the quality of the produced water, which confirms the ability of the design to produce potable water in accordance with local and international standards, as the amount of total dissolved salts in sea water before desalination was 41340 mg/L and in well water 1300 mg/L, while after desalination by innovative design The total dissolved salts in treated sea water was 210 mg/L and in treated well water was 34 mg/L.</p> Zeyad Ahmed Alsakkaf Gamal A. A. Al-Dahbali Adel A. M. Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Zeyad Ahmed Alsakkaf, Gamal A. A. Al-Dahbali, Adel A. M. Saeed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 214 221 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.188 PREVALENCE AND EFFECT OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES, ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS AND HYMENOLEPIS NANA ON THE ACCOMPANYING BLOOD PICTURE IN IBEN KOLDOON HOSPITAL, LAHAJ- YEMEN https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/189 <p style="text-align: justify;">Intestinal parasitic infections, are the most common infections worldwide. Various epidemiological studies in Yemen and the neighboring countries, indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high, especially in developing countries.<br>This study was aims to investigate the prevalence of infection with Intestinal Parasites Worms (IPW), <em>Ascaris lumbricoides</em>, <em>Enterobius vermicularis</em> and <em>Hymenolepis nana</em> and its impact on the blood picture among patients attending Ibn Khaldoon hospital in Lahaj governorate - Yemen.<br>A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2019 to October 2020, to assess the prevalence of infection parasites worms (IPW) and associated risk factors. This study included 645 patients from both sexes and different ages. Stool samples were examined microscopically using direct wet-mount, formal-ether concentration techniques and Saturated sodium chloride floatation technique. We analyzed the blood picture of the infected and uninfected people and focused on the three pictures of white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and eosinophil (E). A structured questionnaire, was used to obtain information regarding the associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.<br>The results showed that (94.88%) were positive and 33 cases (5.12%) were negative. And among the (94.88%) positive cases, (59,53%) cases were positive with intestinal helminthes (IH). The infection rate for males (47.65%) cases and for females (42.97%) cases, and the statistical analysis showed a significant difference at the level of significance (P&lt;0.05). Also, some hematological parameters of the blood picture taken from the patients showed significant differences compared to the control group, where the level of (Hb) decreased (10.19 g/dL) and a slight increase in the number of (WBC) 6990 cells/mm<sup>3</sup> and a rise in (E) cells 671.74). cell/mm<sup>3</sup>.<br>In conclusion, the necessity of spreading health education among members of the community and showing the danger of infection with IPW in particular and parasites in general. In relation with blood picture examinations showed a statistically significant difference (<em>P=0.00</em>) in the three age groups. Where the values of WBC 8.49 Mean and (E) 11.174 Mean were more elevated in the first age group, while they decreased in the second and third age groups, while the level of Hb was the most low (8.420 Mean). In the first, second and third age groups.</p> Khaled Nasher Qhatan Salem Hawazen Ali Mohammed Soroor Copyright (c) 2022 Khaled Nasher Qhatan Salem, Hawazen Ali Mohammed Soroor https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 222 233 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA https://ejua.net/index.php/EJUA-BA/article/view/190 <p style="text-align: justify;">Smokeless tobacco (ST) is a tobacco product that is used by means other than smoking. Evidence was available that ST products is a known risk factor for oral precancerous and cancers for long, with greater risk for oral cancer than others. The prospective, descriptive study has carried out to evaluate the relationship between the use of smokeless tobacco and oral cancer.<br>Biopsy samples have collected from 60 patients, whose have attended to Al-Gamhouria Teaching Hospital and histo-pathological private labs in Aden using a questionnaire during the period of 12 months. The sections from paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H &amp; E). A section containing the full thickness of the tumors have used for histopathological grading.<br>The prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lesions showed different grade of differentiation among 60 studied patients cases, the Well differentiation squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC) was the highest percentage (70%). No significant difference noticed in well-differentiated SCCs (WDSCC) between men (36.7%) and women (33.3 %; P &lt; 0.05). The moderate differentiation SCC (MDSCC), and the poor differentiation SCC (PDSCC) represented (20% &amp; 10%) respectively. According to the age of patients, WDSCC, MDSCC and PDSCC highest percentage age group was (51-60) years. Male were predominant in both genders, male to female ratio 1.2: 1. Anatomical sites of all OSCC lesions had analyzed and&nbsp; revealed that tongue was the most prevalent site (33.3%), followed by the buccal mucosa, (23.3%) , floor of mouth (16.7%) , lip (13.3%), Gingiva (8.3%), and the least prevalent site was the hard palate represented (5%) of all cases., the chief etiological factor which we observed, was tobacco, in&nbsp; the form of smoking tobacco&nbsp; used by 75% of the patients followed by smokeless tobacco product users, in form of shamma chewers, (61.7%),&nbsp; and in form of&nbsp; Hot sachet (58.3%), and Zarda&nbsp; users represented 51.7% of cases.<br>Our results indicate that the occurrence of OSCC among studied cases showed different grade of differentiation, age and gender have some relation with the presence of OSCC. and it is high association with risk habits of tobacco use in different forms particularly smokeless tobacco.</p> Eqbal Awadh Saeed Alkhader Nasser Laswar Khaled Saeed Ali Copyright (c) 2022 Eqbal Awadh Saeed, Alkhader Nasser Laswar, Khaled Saeed Ali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-09-30 2022-09-30 3 3 234 239 10.47372/ejua-ba.2022.3.190